Results for dolichocephalic:
- SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: brachycranic (antonym: dolichocephalic)
DEFINITION: Being short- or broad-headed, that is, having a cephalic index of 80-84.9. The maximum width of the cranium is 80% or more of the maximum length. In ethnology, this term denotes skulls of which the breadth is at least four-fifths of the length.
- SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: dolichocranic
DEFINITION: A term in physical anthropology term meaning long- and narrow-headed. On the cephalic index, the cranium has a maximum width of 75% or less of the maximum length, i.e. a cephalic index greater than 75.
- cephalic index
- CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A measurement technique used to define the relationship between the length and breadth of a human skull. The breadth of the skull is expressed as a percentage of the length and the ratio is figured as the maximum breadth to the maximum length, measured from a point just above the eyebrow ridges, multiplied by 100. This produces an index which defines the skull as round-headed (brachycephalic; a reading above 80), long-headed (dolichocephalic; a reading below 75), or in-between (meso- or mesaticephalic; a reading between 75-80). It is an important anthropological tool though it is now recognized that other methods of measurement are needed to compare skull shapes adequately.
- CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A site in the coastal valley south of modern Lima, Peru, where excavations have revealed settlements dating to the Pre-Ceramic period c 4200 BC. The Chilca Monument was originally a summer camp and later, due to an increasingly warm climate, became favorable for a subsistence pattern called encanto. There are remains of conical huts of cane thatched with sedge. The dead were buried wrapped in twined-sedge mats and the skins of the guanaco. The lomas, patches of vegetation outside the valleys that were watered at that season by fogs, began to dry up. The lomas had provided wild seeds, tubers, and large snails; and deer, guanaco, owls, and foxes were hunted. The camps were eventually abandoned c 2500 BC in favor of permanent fishing villages. Dolichocephalic human remains date to this period but appear ultimately to have been replaced by brachycephalic types some time after 2500 BC.
- Lauicocha Caves
- CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A series of caves of long occupation in the central Peruvian highlands, mainly summer hunting camps, the associated winter locus being the lowlands, during the Archaic. The earliest period of occupation was c 8000-6000 BC; this level is characterized by stemless triangular points and stemmed diamond-shaped points. A number of burials indicates a Dolichocephalic population. The willow-leaf points of Lauricocha II (6000-4000 BC) show strong similarities to points at Chivaterros, El Jobo, and Ayampitim and are associated with knives, scrapers, and other hide-working implements. Later levels contain small points and then ceramics.
- Magellan periods
- SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Magellan complex
CATEGORY: chronology; culture
DEFINITION: A chronological sequence covering 8000 BC-1000 AD constructed on the basis of assemblages from Fell's Cave and the Palli Aike Cave in Patagonia, South America. The sequence is divided into five phases, describing a series of hunting and marine adaptations. The earliest assemblage (Magellan I) contains fishtail projectile points, signifying Paleoindian activity. Horse and sloth bones and the remains of three partly cremated Dolichocephalic humans, found in association with these points, have produced a single radiocarbon date of c 8700 BC. A shift to willow-leaf points occurred in Magellan II c 8000-4000 BC, which coincides with the disappearance of Pleistocene megafauna and widespread climatic change. Magellan IV-V are ill-defined but represent a continuing hunting strategy blending into a period of ceramic use.
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