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Kostenki
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Kostenki-Borshchevo
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Group of 25 Upper Palaeolithic sites on the Don River in Russia. The most important are Kostenki I, XIV, VIII, XII, II, XI, and XVII. The Early Upper Palaeolithic occupations, associated with the remains of horse and other mammals began by 25,000 bp. Other sites dated to c 36,000-26,000 bp with assemblages assigned to the Strelets Culture and Spitsyn Culture. Other layers from c 32,000-26,000 are of the Strelets and Gorodtsov cultures. The industries of 25,000-10,000 bp have mammoth-bone houses, hearths, and some portable art. Skeletons of Cro-Magnon type but mainly immature have been found at sites II, XIV and XV. Kostenki I has produced more of the Venus figurines than any other site in Europe.
Kostenki-Willendorf culture
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: Upper Palaeolithic culture of central Europe and the Russian plain dating to c 30,000-20,000 bp. This culture is based on assemblages containing backed blades, shouldered points, and Venus figurines among the art objects. It is generally equated with the Eastern Gravettian industry.

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